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New Zealand

Published on Thursday,16 July 2015

1.Overview


Natural environment
New Zealand is comparable in size to the United Kingdom or the  Philippines. Nowhere is more than 130km from the sea. The climate is  generally temperate, although the far north can experience subtropical  weather during the summer (December – March) and the inland alpine areas  of the South Island can experience severe frosts in winter (June –  August).


History
New Zealand became a British colony in 1840. In that year, more than  500 Māori chiefs and representatives of Queen Victoria signed the Treaty  of Waitangi. The Treaty is the country’s founding document and was a  political compact between Māori and British settlers to build a  government in New Zealand. The Māori name for New Zealand is Aotearoa  (‘land of the long white cloud’). New Zealand was named by the first  recorded European to visit New Zealand, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, in  1642.


Economy
New Zealand has a market economy based largely on tourism and primary  industries like agriculture. It depends heavily on international trade,  mainly with Australia, China, the United States, and Japan. Economic  free-market reforms since the 1980s have removed many barriers to  foreign investment. New Zealanders are generally well-educated, healthy,  and have a comfortable standard of living.

 

2.Statistics

 

Gross domestic product by industry (in 1995/96 prices)

2011

2006

NZ$(million)

Finance, insurance, and business services

39,285

35,031

Personal and community services

16,512

15,252

Manufacturing

16,393

19,618

Transport and communication

14,096

13,389

Retail, accommodation, and restaurants

9,989

9,825

Wholesale trade

9,841

10,079

Government, administration, and defence

6,789

5,496

Agriculture

6,774

6,555

Construction

5,678

6,530

Fishing, forestry, and mining

3,455

2,755

Electricity, gas, and water

2,670

2,441

Gross domestic product

135,904

131,633

 

 


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